Вооружённые силы Бенина или FAB (сокр. от Forces armées béninoises) — военная организация Республики Бенин, предназначенная для защиты свободы, независимости и территориальной целостности государства. Состоят из сухопутных войск, военно-морских и военно-воздушных сил.
This country is one of the poorest in Africa. Its intractable and apparently insoluble economic difficulties have been the main cause of its internal instabiUty since the attainment of independence from France in 1960. The country has presented a depressing picture of confusion, coups, strikes, plots and abortive coups, scandals and ethnic rivalries. A major contributory cause of this sequence has also been the existence of a large and ambitious elite clan, political and military, which has exploited regional and other differences. In 1960 Prime Minister Maga (President from 1961) was in power; his government lasted until riots and strikes in October, 1963 when the army, under Colonel Soglo, took power. The army made way for a government headed by two of Maga's rivals: Apithy (President) and Ahomadegbe (Prime Minister) in 1964. In 1965 the army, again under Soglo, returned to power in circumstances of disorder; initially it attempted to rule through a civilian, Congacou, but later in the year Soglo took over himself. At the end of 1967 Soglo was removed by a group of younger officers who, along ethnic and pohtical hnes, were themselves sharply divided. These attempted to rule through a Military Revolutionary Committee; finding this impossible they handed authority to the Army Commander, Colonel Alley. Alley disliked military involvement in government and returned power to a civilian regime in 1968, again amidst conditions of confusion and recrimination. This regime found itself heavily dependent on Colonel Kouandete, Alley's principal rival in the army, which led Alley to attempt a coup; this failed and Alley was arrested. Kouandete then assumed power in 1969 and permitted both the return to the country, and to political life, of Maga, Apithy and Ahomadegbe, in a triumvirate. This in turn led to increasing unrest, disunity, disobedience and abortive coups in the army, and to yet one more successful coup, by a northern officer. Major Kerekou, in 1972. Kerekou's government has lasted longer, and has proved slightly less inefficient, than any postindependence government in Porto Novo. Its policy has been one of political disengagement from France together with increasing Marxist rhetoric, without too sharp an alienation from indispensable French economic and military aid. In January, 1975 there was an abortive coup involving one unit that attempted to overthrow Kerekou, the most serious of three such plots in the period 1972 to 1975; this was followed shortly afterwards by a political scandal in which it was alleged that the Defence Minister was caught in bed with the President's wife. Periodic strikes and demonstrations, suppressed with some severity, suggested that Kerekou's government was not solving Benin's problems any more than its numerous predecessors. In January, 1977 a most extraordinary event took place: a group of airborne soldiers, some of pale complexion, attacked the Presidential Palace in a seemingly very casual style. The attack was unsuccessful. Benin rhetoric alleged that Togo, Gabon and Morocco organised the raid, with French financial and logistic help. Other explanations that have been offered suggest either that the shooting arose from a feud between the army and the gendarmerie, or, somewhat less likely, that the affair was arranged by Kerekou himself to rally support and dispose of opponents. Of all these explanations, a measure of Moroccan complicity seems the least improbable, Morocco being aggrieved at Benin's support for Polisario claims in the former Spanish Sahara.
The Benin army lacks credibility. It has never succeeded in retaining popular support for its interventions in political life. Just as the triumvirate, or eternal triangle, of Maga, Apithy and Ahomadegbe represented the regional interests of the north , the south and the Fon , respectively , so in the army have the personalities of Kerekou , Kouandete , Alley and Soglo . There have also been sharp, at times bitter, divisions between the older and more experienced officers who had risen from the ranks of France's colonial army, and the newer generation of young men trained at St-Cyr-Coetquidan and elsewhere. Soglo and Alley represented the older generation, and Kouandete and Kerekou the younger generation. Under Kerekou the latter group appear to have gained almost complete ascendancy.
Benin's army is composed of two infantry battahons, a company described as para-commando, a reconnaissance squadron and an artillery battery. One report also suggests an engineer sub-unit. The para-commando company is normally stationed at Ouidah, and one each of the infantry battalions is in the north and south of the country, respectively. Army headquarters is at Parakou, the air force headquarters and base is at Porto Novo. A grandiose reorganisation scheme was proclaimed late in 1976 in which all State services were to fall into three groups. The first is to comprise the army, pohce, customs, fire, border guards, gendarmerie and forest service; the second is to be a public security force; and the third a people's militia. North Korean assistance has been reported both in the late 1960s and at present; a very unconfirmed report notes the arrival of a small number of Cuban advisers.
The army is raised by a somewhat random system of 18 months' national service. While there is intense ethnic rivalry among the officers this does not appear to have extended either to soldiers or to their recruitment.
Benin has no arms industry. Almost all its equipment has come from France, except the few armoured cars of the reconnaissance squadron which are United States M8 vehicles. The artillery battery possesses 105mm weapons and the infantry battalions 81 mm and 60 mm mortars. The air force consists of three assorted transport aircraft, two liaison aircraft and one helicopter.
Униформа ВС Бенина, в целом, следует французском образцу, за исключением кепи, вместо которых носятся фуражки и береты.
Эмблема бенинской армии — две скрещенные традиционные боевые палки со звездой в месте пересечения, над ними — натянутый вверх лук, вся композиция обрамлена лавровым венком. В армии Бенина эмблемы родов войск носят на погонах, а не на петлицах, как в других франкоязычных армиях Африки.
- John Keegan. World Armies. — P.123-124.
|Северная Африка:||Алжир • Египет • Ливия • Марокко • Тунис|
|Центральная Африка:||Ангола • Габон • Камерун • ДР Конго • Конго (Браззавиль) • Сан-Томе и Принсипи • ЦАР • Чад • Экваториальная Гвинея|
|Западная Африка:||Бенин • Буркина-Фасо • Гамбия • Гана • Гвинея • Гвинея-Бисау • Кабо-Верде • Кот-д’Ивуар • Либерия • Мавритания • Мали • Нигер • Нигерия • Сенегал • Сьерра-Леоне • Того|
|Восточная Африка:||Бурунди • Джибути • Замбии • Зимбабве • Кения • Руанда • Сомали • Танзания • Уганда • Эритрея • Эфипия • Южный Судан|
|Южная Африка:||Ботсвана • Коморы • Лесото • Маврикий • Мадагаскар • Малави • Мозамбик • Намибия • Свазиленд • ЮАР|