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Вооружённые силы Сенегала — военная организация Сенегала, предназначенная для обороны Республики, защиты свободы и независимости государства, одно из важнейших орудий политической власти.

История

Senegal attained independence from France in 1960. For a few months Senegal formed part of the Federation of Mali, uniting the two former French colonies of Soudan and Senegal. This union, however, proved unworkable, but during its brief period of Hfe the Mali Federation sent a battalion formed of companies from both States to the United Nations Congo Force, where it gained a great reputation. From 1960 to the present day, Senegal has been ruled by President L. Senghor. In general, Senghor's period of government has been tranquil; somewhat isolated attempts by rivals to overthrow him occurred in 1962 and 1967, and 1968—9 saw major student and labour demonstrations. These events excepted, Senegal has enjoyed remarkable stability

Senegal has a defence agreement with Gambia (which has no army) which provides for mutual assistance, a Joint Defence Committee and assistance in the training of Gambia's police. Senegal has committed one battalion for service in the United Nations Force in Egypt. Until the Polisario insurgency against Mauritania, to the north of Senegal, the Casamance area in the south was the territory's major military problem. Casamance adjoins both Guinea— Conakry, whose regime has always been hostile to Dakar, and Guinea — Bissau. Before the collapse of Portuguese rule insurgents operated against Portugal from the safety of the Casamance, sometimes attracting Portuguese hot pursuit across the border; since 1974 the problem has taken a new form. Former Portuguese African colonial soldiers, in flight from the new regime, have occupied areas of the Casamance and proved an embarrassment to the authorities. With the opening of the PoHsario's attacks on Mauritania, with whom Senegal is on friendly terms, anxiety has centred upon the northern border. For more general defence, reliance has been placed on French garrisons. Until 1974 France maintained a garrison of some 2250, of which over 1000 were soldiers, theremainder being naval and air force personnel. In 1974 the French base at Dakar was transferred to Senegal, though France retained the right to use it. The French garrison was also reduced to its present level — a battalion of marines at Bel Air Camp, near Dakar.

The reduction of the French garrison and the presence of a second revolutionary government on Senegal's borders have led Senegal to take a more serious view of defence than seemed necessary in the 1960s.

Организация

The Senegal army consists of four infantry battalions, an armoured car reconnaissance squadron, an engineer battalion, two parachute sub-units, two marine sub-units and an artillery sub-unit. The country is divided into four military zones: West (Dakar), North (St. Louis), South (Bignona) and East (Tambacounda). One battalion is at Dakar and one at St. Louis, and the third is in the south (present deployment not known). The marine, parachute, reconnaissance and artillery sub-units are normally posted to Dakar, with the engineer unit broken down into company or smaller detachments all over the territory. A random system of national military service operates: the term of service for those selected was extended from 18 months to 2 years in 1974. No ethnic group appears to be in any position of advantage and little ethnic friction is evident. France has provided the greatest measure of training and equipment assistance since 1960, a mission some 450 strong being at work in the early 1960s. This is now reduced to a level of some 20 officers and 20NCOs. There has also been a Umited amount of United States military assistance, a small United States army team serving in Senegal in the late 1960s.

Вооружение

The Senegal army is being re-equipped with modern equipment. Panhard AML 245 armoured cars have been issued to the reconnaissance squadron, and the infantry battalions are receiving modern French battalion weapons. The artillery at present consists of French 75 mm guns and 81 mm mortars. The air force comprises nine transports and four helicopters; its major base is at Ouakam, near Dakar. One report also notes the purchase by Senegal of Berliet VXB wheeled APCs. The number purchased is reported to be twelve.

Униформа

Униформа сенегальской армии следует французскому образцу, поскольку Сенегал до обретения независимости был французской колонией.

Единая для всех родов войск и служб Сенегала является эмблема с изображением зеленой звезды (присутствует на государственном флаге), обрамленная венком. Данную эмблему носят как на фуражках, так и на беретах. Спецназ Сенегала носит коричневые береты, спецназ ВМС — зеленые, парашютисты — бежевые. Сенегал — единственная страна бывшей Французской Африки, военные которой носят петлицы с эмблемами родов войск (служб).

Особую униформу имеют военно-учебные заведения (в частности, Национальное военное училище по подготовке офицеров действующего состава) и церемониальная Красная гвардия, названная так из-за соответствующего цвета формы.

Галерея

Источники

1200px-Emblem of the South African Department of Military Veterans.svg Вооружённые силы Африки Sa-army
Северная Африка:АлжирЕгипетЛивияМароккоТунис
Центральная Африка:АнголаГабонКамерунДР КонгоКонго (Браззавиль)Сан-Томе и ПринсипиЦАРЧадЭкваториальная Гвинея
Западная Африка:БенинБуркина-ФасоГамбияГанаГвинеяГвинея-БисауКабо-ВердеКот-д’ИвуарЛиберияМавританияМалиНигерНигерияСенегалСьерра-ЛеонеТого
Восточная Африка:БурундиДжибутиЗамбииЗимбабвеКенияРуандаСомалиТанзанияУгандаЭритреяЭфипияЮжный Судан
Южная Африка:БотсванаКоморыЛесотоМаврикийМадагаскарМалавиМозамбикНамибияСвазилендЮАР
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