Deepsands Gorge or the gorge is a wide chasm in SkyClan's territory lined by steep cliffs. It was where SkyClan's camp was located, and is the source of the River Chell.[1] It was formerly inhabited by the Kin before they were defeated by all 5 clans.[2]


The gorge is a wide, deep rocky ravine that was part of SkyClan's territory, and where their camp was located. There is a stream that trickles through[1] that widens into the River Chell,[1] attached to the waterfall. A cave lined with moss, known as Whispering Cave,[3] is located near the source of the river. SkyClan's medicine cats used to share tongues there with StarClan in Whispering Cave each quarter-moon, and the moss could be gathered for use as bedding or for carrying water.[4] When the stream overflows, the many SkyClan cats sheltered in the warriors' den.[5] There are sandy cliffs with sparse vegetation, narrow paths up the faces of the cliffs on either side of the river, and piles of boulders.[6] When slippery, a cat could fall and be fatally injured. The caves inside the gorge were used as dens,[1] and offered protection for the cats. Skywatcher's former den is to the west of the Rockpile, separate from the rest of the camp.[1] On the main part of the gorge wall was the leader's den, elders' den, nursery, and at the top of the gorge is the warriors' den.[1][7] The Rockpile, is a tall, rocky clutter of stones, which was where the Clan leader addressed the Clan from, as well as performing ceremonies, and is located in the center of the gorge.[8] On top of the gorge is the Skyrock, where Gatherings took place,[9] and where the territory could be surveyed from.[10]

Book mentions

In the Super Editions

Firestar's Quest

The gorge is first introduced when Firestar and Sandstorm are following the stream to try and find SkyClan, they come across a large gorge with caves and trees. After a dream that Firestar has, both he and Sandstorm realize that this was SkyClan's former camp.

SkyClan's Destiny

In Leafstar's dream, the water from the gorge floods the territory of SkyClan.

Hawkwing's Journey

SkyClan is living in the Gorge in the beginning of the book. Echosong receives an omen later, and believes it means that SkyClan might finally need to rejoin the other Clans and leave the gorge. SkyClan takes in Darktail, they believed he was part of the prophecy, Because of the vision, a patrol of Billystorm, Hawkwing, Waspwhisker, Blossomheart, and Pebblepaw leave the gorge to look for the Clans. They return to the gorge unsuccessful and bring news of Billystorm's death. Eventually, Darktail gathers up enough support from rogues and drives SkyClan from the gorge, leaving them with no choice but to look for the other four Clans.

In the SkyClan and the Stranger arc

The Rescue

Leafstar shows the reader the gorge from up on one of its side. She says that SkyClan's camp is below her, in the gorge. She describes it as a safe, secure place and a place of peace.
As Leafstar tells the reader more of the Clan, Clovertail tells her kits, Birdpaw, Honeypaw, and Sandypaw to be careful while playing on the rocks in the camp. Birdpaw protests that they are being careful, then slips and falls off a rock, injuring her eye. Leafstar and Billystorm then enter the gorge with prey. Once there, Leafstar lies down as Clovertail gives her advice on kits.
Later, Leafstar, Petalnose, and Echosong eat prey in the Gorge when Sharpclaw and Cherrytail walk by, and tell Leafstar that they will go hunting. Leafstar asks them to check on the fox trail also, and the two cats walk away. When Leafstar is told that Sharpclaw and Cherrytail will probably become mates, she wonders if she might be torn between her kits and her Clanmates, and she watches young warriors and apprentices jumping on the ledges in the gorge.
The next day, Leafstar wakes up after a bad dream, and walks by the river with Billystorm. When Sharpclaw asks her if she would like to go on patrol, Leafstar denies, and says that she will stay in camp that day. Billystorm is surprised that she turned down a patrol, and offers to stay in the gorge with her, although Leafstar says she will be fine. She is seen lying down in the sun, and thinks that letting the sun warm her pelt feels good. Leafstar sees Harveymoon enter the gorge, and he and Leafstar leave the gorge to go on a walk. That afternoon, Leafstar naps in the gorge, in the shade of a large rock, as Nettlesplash and Sandypaw clean the elders' fur in the elder's den above her.
Each sunrise, Leafstar grows bigger, and feels envious of the cats sent on patrol. From her den, she looks down at the cats in the gorge being assigned to and going off to patrols. Leafstar asks Sharpclaw to go on patrol, but he tells her that she must stay in camp until her kits are born. Leafstar is angry, but Echosong comes in and interrupts, suggesting to collect herbs. When they come back, some warriors are seen looking for apprentices in the gorge. Leafstar asks what the matter is, and is informed that their apprentices, as well as Nettlesplash and Plumwillow, were supposed to have a training session, but can't be found. Leafstar suggests that the apprentices might not have heard when the session was due. However, she is interrupted when the group of five cats enters the gorge with a bloody, mangled pigeon, feathers on their faces. Bouncefire scolds them, and orders them to wash off in the pool before attacking foxes. Leafstar watches as Birdpaw washes her eye by the pool, and sees that her eye has opened up again.
Several days later, Leafstar sees the five young cats head up the gorge again. Sharpclaw asks where they are going, and they answer that they are going on a dawn patrol. Leafstar complains to Clovertail and Petalnose about the heat, and hardly believes that she would rather be in the shade than on the warm yellow rocks.
After a few uneventful days, Leafstar washes herself in the gorge, and sees Echosong walking strangely. She asks what's wrong, and Echosong expresses worries about Birdpaw's eye. Later, Birdpaw rushes over to Leafstar and Echosong, and her eye is healed. The sun is seen shining brightly, and Leafstar decides to nap in the Whispering Cave, as it is too hot outside. While lying there, she sees the apprentices wonder if they should tell Tinycloud of their secret, but they decide not to. Leafstar decides to keep a close eye on them from then on.
Later, Leafstar eats prey with Clovertail, Petalnose, and a gray she-cat, and sees Nettlesplash, Birdpaw, and Sandypaw head up the gorge. She asks where they are going, and they answer that they will go to cool their paws. Clovertail is glad that Nettlesplash has gotten over his fear of water, which existed since being pushed into the river in the gorge when a kit. Leafstar decides to follow the young cats. She walks after them at the top of the gorge. When she discovers the young cats eating Twoleg food, she demands that they all go back to the gorge at the very moment. The Twoleg spots Leafstar, and the Clan cats run back to the camp.
Back in the gorge, Leafstar yowls, in great pain, and Clovertail tells her that she is having her kits. With the assistance of two other cats, Leafstar drags herself into her den, and Billystorm paces outside for a while, until they are born. Billystorm enters Leafstar's den, and meets his three kits.
Later, Leafstar lies in the gorge, outside her den, with her kits, and Petalnose says that she loves the new kits in the Clan, although she is interrupted when Shrewtooth jumps up the Leafstar's den entrance, with sheep's wool for the kits. Cherrytail visits Leafstar next, and wishes for kits of her own, although Leafstar tells her that she is clearly close with Sharpclaw. However, a SkyClan cat stands at the top of the gorge and announces that there is an old female Twoleg coming. Cherrytail brings the kits into Leafstar's den, and Leafstar is grateful for the Clan's organization, as soon after, all cats are seen in their dens. Leafstar's kits try to escape the den and one falls down the ledge. Leafstar goes to help her kit, although she tells her Clan to stay hidden when they are seen poking their heads out of their dens. However, Leafstar and her kits are captured by the elderly Twoleg, and taken away from the gorge, to the Twoleg's nest.
While Leafstar and her kits are in the Twoleg nest, she dreams that they are back in the gorge, and wandering it alone at night, but that the Clan has left them. She wakes up in anguish after hearing Fallowfern yowling, as part of the plan to rescue her. They escape the den and a SkyClan rescue party comes to take her and her kits back to the gorge. Leafstar and her kits go back to camp, and she notes that that night her nest that night was very comfortable. The next night, Leafstar talks to the Clan on the Rockpile about how proud she is of them. Leafstar and Billystorm name their kits, and Harry comes to the gorge and asks to be a warrior.

Beyond the Code

Leafstar watches her kits, Firekit, Harrykit, and Stormkit wrestle and play in the gorge as she lies down on a ledge. At that point, a hunting patrol enters the gorge, and are watched by Honeypaw and Birdpaw, who jump across a stream to complain to Leafstar.
Leafstar thinks that it has been extremely hot lately, and prey is seen rotting in the camp. The daylight-warriors don't participate for the Clan as much, and Billystorm, Ebonyclaw, and Harveymoon are seen lying in the shade of a rock, while Rockshade and Bouncefire scornfully watch them, and complain about how lazy they are being. Leafstar jumps down from her den to fix the skirmish, but Harrykit, while playing with his sisters, gets his nosed poked by a thistle. While Billystorm sees to the kits, Leafstar calms her warriors down, and suggests hunting at dawn and dusk because hunting in the heat is difficult. Later that day, Sharpclaw approaches Leafstar and says that he will let the cats relax until sunset, and Leafstar agrees as he walks away.
That night, the daylight warriors climb up the gorge to head back their Twoleg nest, but Billystorm and Ebonyclaw stay to hunt for the Clan. Sharpclaw organizes patrols, and Leafstar's kits beg to go on patrol too. One patrol of cats including Sol bounds up the gorge, and Leafstar notices that he is very determined to be a great warrior.
Later that night, right as Leafstar is about to go to bed, Sharpclaw and a patrol run into the gorge and yowl that there are injured cats. Leafstar jumps down from her den, and Echosong bounds away from hers. Leafstar's kits begin to cry for her, but Honeypaw runs across the clearing and offers to look after them. Sharpclaw informs his leader and medicine cat that they met a badger who attacked them. Echosong tells Leafstar that Ebonyclaw will have to stay in the gorge for the night because of a bad bite on her front leg. Leafstar is privately worried that a single badger has hurt them that badly. Even later that night, Leafstar and Sharpclaw walk in the gorge, and discuss strategies for how to make the Clan safer. After the announcement the next day, claiming that patrols would consist of eight cats, Leafstar and Billystorm walk together in the gorge, as other cats are seen walking or going to patrols. Patchfoot also leads a patrol of eight cats out of the gorge, and Leafstar's kits beg to go on patrol too. Leafstar teaches them some basic stalking.
Leafstar waits all night, and is glad when Billystorm returns, but his patrol of eight cats who come into the gorge have only managed to catch two pieces of prey. Patchfoot's patrol comes back with single squirrel too, but only half of the patrol is present. Leafstar is angered at Patchfoot for splitting up the patrol, but she is interrupted when Sol, Mintfur, Plumwillow, and Nettlesplash come into the gorge with enough prey to feed the Clan for days. The cats in camp gather around, praising them, and Leafstar invites Tangle and Lichenfur, who complain about the noise, to join them in eating.
The next day, the cats lie in the gorge, but Sharpclaw comes up to Leafstar as she sits outside her den, and he expresses his doubts about Sol and how he caught all of the food. Leafstar decides to ask him, and asks Sol to lead a hunting patrol again, which she would be on too. Sol accepts, and later, the same cats from the patrol last night head up the gorge,. They walk away from the entrance to the gorge, into the forest. After the patrol has stolen the foxes food, they run back to the to top the gorge, where Leafstar is angry at Sol for stealing from foxes, who might find their way to camp with the trail. Sharpclaw comes up the gorge at that moment, and is surprised that they managed to get so much food again. The two toms quarrel, but Leafstar stops them from doing them. After ordering the other cats on patrol to not tell anyone else about it, she tells them that they should all come and leave it behind them.
The sun is still seen shining in the gorge, and Sol sleeps in the shadow of a ledge. Cherrytail and Waspwhisker invite him to a hunting skills session with the apprentices, and Sol accepts. Leafstar watches from a rock, but whenever the order is given to pounce, Sol clumsily falls onto the ground. Sharpclaw climbs up to the rock where Leafstar is and they talk about giving Sol private training.
That night, as Leafstar sleeps in her den, she hears footsteps outside, and looks out her den, to see two foxes enter the gorge. Leafstar jumps down from her den and yowls that there is a fox attack, ordering her warriors to defend the camp. Warriors leave their dens and attack the foxes, but Leafstar's kits try to escape from their den. Lichenfur stops them, and the SkyClan cats scare foxes, causing them to run out of the gorge, yipping. That night, Sol comes up to Leafstar's den and apologizes for not participating in the battle, then telling Leafstar of his history before joining SkyClan.
The next day, Leafstar and Billystorm sit on a ledge and watch their kits play with a butterfly, and Leafstar decides that she will privately train Sol. She is next seen teaching Sol private lessons in the gorge. Although he struggles at the beginning, he begins to improve.
That night, there is a Gathering, and the SkyClan climb up the gorge, gathering at the Skyrock. The cats smell rain arriving, and their moods lift. Leafstar begins the Gathering, but there is a loud crackle of thunder, and a sudden downpour of rain. Leafstar orders everyone to go back to their dens, and the SkyClan cats rush down into the gorge.
Leafstar enters his den, where her kits are worried about the loud noise. Leafstar comforts them that it is just a storm, and many SkyClan cats are seen poking their heads out of their dens to look at the storm. Billystorm comes into Leafstar's den to help her keep the kits safe. Soon after, Sharpclaw climbs up to Leafstar's den, and tells her that they may need to consider evacuating the lower dens, as there are already some big puddles forming at the bottom of the gorge. He guesses that they will all be able to fit in the warrior's den for the night though.
Suddenly, an deep, awful rumble is heard and felt, and Leafstar looks outside to see torrents of water splashing around the bottom of the gorge. Leafstar gives the order to run and she, Billystorm, and Sharpclaw each take one of the kits, and run across the gorge. Leafstar yowls for everyone to get out of the ravine and get to high ground, and cats are seen leaving their dens and jumping up the gorge. Leafstar, Billystorm, and Sharpclaw hardly manage to get to the top of the gorge, and Leafstar tells everyone to hold on and grab on to the rocks, while the flood swirls below. they wait for a while, until the floodwaters die down and the rain stops. The SkyClan cats, who stand at the edges of the gorge, look around curiously, and then slowly make their back into the remains of the camp. The forest beyond the gorge is unrecognizable to Leafstar now, and many trees are gone. Leafstar asks Billystorm to look after the kits for a bit, and she and Sharpclaw head down the ravine, asking if anyone is hurt.
Echosong's herb supply has been washed away, and Cherrytail stands on top of a log, moaning, before announcing that Lichenfur is dead. The SkyClan cats gather around where Lichenfur lies, and when Sparrowpelt asks if they can sit vigil for her, or should start clearing the camp again, Leafstar looks around at the gorge, where so much is destroyed, but decides that the camp can wait, and says that they will sit vigil for their lost Clanmate. Leafstar asks StarClan why they can't let SkyClan live in the gorge in peace, and though Billystorm comforts Leafstar that they will rebuild the dens, Leafstar is unsure.

After the Flood

Leafstar shows reader what is left of the SkyClan camp. Cats are seen picking up debris and pushing logs into the river, and Leafstar explains that a sudden flood almost destroyed them, and the destruction of their camp left them vulnerable. She also thinks about how the lack of clean water is a trouble for the Clan cats too, and she thinks that the apprentices work as hard as the warrirs, and Birdpaw and Sandypaw are seen coming into the gorge with moss in their jaws. Clovertail is in charge of the construction of new dens, and Birdpaw and Sandypaw climb up o the elder's den, and add the moss to Tangle's nest.
Sharpclaw is in charge of the heaviest lifting, and is joined by Waspwhisker, Sparrowpelt, and Harveymoon. The toms are seen trying to push a very large log into the river. The heavy lifting cats take a break, and Mintfur, who walks by at the time with a branch in her jaws, is warned by Harveymoon about a puddle in front of her.
Leafstar tries to dislodge a branch beside the entrance to her den, and her kits ask to help too. She tells them to work on getting all the ruined bedding out of the den, and when Stormkit exclaims that there will be a storm again when she sees some clouds, Harrykit tries to climb up the cliff, although Leafstar stops him from doing so. Leafstar promises her kits that there will not be another storm, but is privately doubtful as she watches the heavy lifting cats push a log into the water.
Clovertail comes to Leafstar and asks her kits' help to choose feather for Tangle's nest, which they enthusiastically accept. Without the distraction of her kits, Leafstar dislodges the branches and can concentrate on her work. She watches Sharpclaw bark orders to dislodge a branch from some rocks in the stream, and Cherrytail watches him. Sharpclaw warns her to not work so hard, but Cherrytail asks him to relax, as she is only expecting kits. Leafstar bounds over to Sharpclaw, who wonders if the flood was a sign from StarClan. At that point, Sparrowpelt tries to move the branch, but slips and falls on his shoulder. Echosong rushes over and promises to fix him up.
Sol comes into the gorge with some ivy leaves, but is told by Leafstar that they are poisonous. Leafstar pads after Sol along the river, and asks him to help clear the stream. Later, Lefastar goes into Echosong's den, where she the medicine cat tells her that she put Sparrowpelt's shoulder right.
That night, Leafstar dreams that Spottedleaf stands at the top of the gorge. The StarClan she cat comes up to Leafstar, and when Leafstar asks if StarClan sent the flood for a reason, and if they are not safe there anymore, Spottedleaf comforts her that it wasn't a sign from StarClan, though warning her about sol. Leafstar is still confused, but Spottedleaf begins to walk away. Leafstar climbs up to the top of the gorge, still asking the StarClan she-cat questions.
the next day, Billystorm returns to camp, and he and Leafstar look at the wrecked camp. Leafstar says that they have a big task ahead of them, and Billystorm agrees. Leafstar explains that the Clan got through a lot yesterday, but that there's still lots of debris to clear. Billystorm offers to work with the worst parts.
Billystorm offers Shrewtooth and Harveymoon, who struggle with untangling a net from a branch, some help, which they agree to. As Billystorm goes over, he finds some silverthorn, and Leafstar guesses that it got washed out with the flood. Leafstar, Billystorm, Shrewtooth, and Harveymoon roll it out of the gorge.
Leafstar and Billystorm put the silverthorn inside a tree trunk in a forest outside of camp, and Billystorm frets that their kits might not be safe in the gorge. Leafstar thinks that they will be fine, but decides to leave them with Clovertail for a bit anyways.
Back at camp, she asks Sol if he would like her to show him some herbs, which he agrees to. As they are in the forest, Leafstar thinks that it is good to get away from the camp, even for such a short time. When Sol learns well, he asks to be made a warrior, but Leafstar tells him that he must first be assessed, and she enters the gorge with him, thinking that the pleasant outing spoiled in a hurry. As she enters camp, Patchfoot, Fallowfern, and Petalnose wait for her, and express their doubts about rebuilding the dens, fearing that the gorge will get flooded out again. Petalnose admits that they are wondering if it is a good place to live. Leafstar is surprised, and exclaims that they worked hard to make the gorge their home, asking where else they could live. Petalnose admits that the three of them were talking about leaving the whole Clan and finding somewhere else to live. Leafstar is surprised, and miserable about this.
She goes to her den, where her kits play with moss. Leafstar asks if they are stalking it like a mouse, but her kits say that Billystorm gave it to them, and they are pretending their householk gave it to them. Harrykit tells her that Billystorm says that they can live with him now, to keep them safe if there's another flood, and Firekit adds that he said the housefolks' den never floods. Leafstar is surprised, and Stormkit confirms that he said it wasn't safe for them to play in the gorge anymore. Leafstar sits outside her den sadly and thinks. When Billystorm enters the camp with a squirrel in his has, Leafstar glares at him, then rushes over, exclaiming that their kits belong in the gorge. Billystorm counters that they were born there, but do not belong anywhere that won't be safe, and offers taking them home with him. Leaftar had thought that the gorge was Billystorm's home, but Billystorm tells her that while it is, he has another home too, and says that he thinks the kits would be better off with him, and that they could always come back when they're full-grown. Billystorm adds that he has heard that some cats say there soon might not be a Clan around, and Leafstar orders him to get out, telling him that he isn't loyal to SkyClan if he wants to take the kits away. Billystorm sadly leaves the gorge and some SkyClan cats stare at Leafstar. Echosong approaches her leader, who sits on a rock in the river, but Leafstar doesn't want to talk.
That night, when Leafstar's kits bother her about wanting to go to the Twolegplace, Leafstar leaves her den and lies outside. She wonders if Billystorm is right, and if the kits would be safer with his housefolk than they would be with her. The next day, Leafstar walks in the gorge, and Billystorm doesn't show up. She asks if anyone has seen him lately, but no one has.
Leafstar desperately wants to do something productive, so she runs over to where Sol sits in the shade of a rock, and offers him to get assessed. The next day in camp, some cats are seen cleaning up by the river, but Billystorm still doesn't come to the gorge. Leafstar's kits ask why Billystorm isn't coming to camp, and when Echosong offers Leafstar to take a stroll in the woods, she agrees to it, leaving Leafstar's kits to play in the gorge. When they come back into the gorge, Waspwhisker alerts Leafstar that her kits are gone, and none of the cats in camp know here they are. None of the cats have seen Billystorm either, and Sharpclaw orders search patrols immediately, leaving SkyClan cats to run across the gorge and call his name. Sharpclaw suggests that Leafstar stays in the gorge unless the kits come back.
That night, Leafstar sadly sits in her den, and Echosong asks if her leader thinks Billystorm took the kits, which she is unsure to. Leafstar sleeps in her den, but when she wakes up she sees a group of nine warriors gathereed beside the river, with Sharpclaw giving them orders. The cats leave the gorge, and Honeypaw tells Leafstar that Sharpclaw is taking a patrol to Billystorm's nest. Leafstar says that they must stop the patrol, and she and Honeypaw bound up the gorge. After the SkyClan cats realize that Billystorm doesn't have the kits, the patrol, Leafstar, and Billystorm head back to the gorge sadly.
The next morning, Leafstar asks Honeypaw where Sol is, and the apprentice responds that he only stayed in camp a short while last night before going to search on his own. Sol comes back, unsuccesful, and Leafstar tells Sharpclaw to all off all the other search parties. She, Billystorm, and Echosong walk through the gorge and call the kits' names, although there is no response. However, when searching in the forest they see a group of eight rogues heading toward SkyClan, and the three cats run back to camp. Billystorm leads the way into the gorge by an extremely steep cliff, and he assists Leafstar and Echosong as they come down that way too. The three quickly run beside the river, and Leafstar announces that they are under attack by intruders. Leafstar orders the cats to form alongside her, and tells the youngest and oldest to get into Echosong's den. The rogues enter the camp, but Leafstar says that the gorge is SkyClan's home. The rogues attack and fight with SkyClan, and they have the element of surprise when reinforcements come. The rogues realize that there are too many of them and run back to the entrance of the gorge. At the top of the gorge, the leader asks why SkyClan isn't finishing them off, and Sharpclaw responds that they have seen what SkyClan will do to defend their home. The rogues walk away from the gorge, and Leafstar approaches Petalnose, Patchfoot, and Fallowfern, and says that they have shown that it will be a great loss if they leave. However, Petalnose tells her that SkyClan is their home, and they are proud to be a part of it. The SkyClan cats are shown to be happy, but Leaftar and Billystorm walk sadly away from the celebrating cats, and Leafstar thinks that the gorge is her kits' home too.
The next day, Shrewtooth stretches in pain by the river, and Leafstar looks out of her den to check if he is alright. When Sol sees that there are leaves on his leg, he jumps into the river to get rid of the stench. There is a hunting patrol that passes by, and Leafstar asks them if they have seen Sol that morning, although none of them have. They take turns sending search parties throughout the day, although all are successful. Leafstar later walks in the gorge sadly and Billystorm suggests that she rests, but as Leafstar goes to do so, she sees Sol go up the gorge, with Shrewtooth crouched behind some rocks, watching him. Leafstar follows the kits, and beside the abandoned Twoleg den, Sol tells her kits that Leafstar doesn't want them back because she is still rebuilding their den. Leafstar banishes Sol from SkyClan, and Billystorm tells him that he is leaving and never coming back. Sol says that daylight-warriors are pathetic for living with their Twolegs, but Billystorm announces that his home is in the gorge from then on, and that he is no longer a daylight warrior. Sol says that they think their warrior ancestors will save them from any disaster like another flood or more rats, but says that they are wrong, and he walks away from the SkyClan cats, cursing all the Clans. Billystorm frets that Sol will show up in the gorge, but Leafstar says that he can just try.

In the Novellas

Ravenpaw's Farewell

Coming Soon


Official art

See also

Notes and references

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 Revealed on the map of SkyClan's Destiny
  2. Shattered Sky
  3. Revealed in Firestar's Quest, page 368
  4. Revealed in Firestar's Quest, page 248
  5. Revealed in Firestar's Quest, page 247
  6. Revealed in Firestar's Quest, page 184
  7. Revealed in Firestar's Quest, pages 246-247
  8. Revealed in SkyClan's Destiny, page 18
  9. Revealed in Firestar's Quest, page 246
  10. Revealed in Firestar's Quest, page 471
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